Sources Cited by Abbreviation

LW: Luther’s Works (“American Edition”). Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Helmut T. Lehmann. 55 vols. St. Louis: Concordia; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1955-86.

NASB: New American Standard Bible. 1960-1995. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

PE: Works of Martin Luther (“Philadelphia Edition”). 6 vols. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg, 1915-43. Reprinted 1982 by Baker Book House Company.

VCW: Laestadius, Lars Levi. The Voice of One Crying in the Wilderness, periodical published 1852-1854, book compilation and translation by OALC, 1988.

VOZ: The Voice of Zion. Monthly newspaper of the LLC.

WA: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe (“Weimarer Ausgabe”). Weimar, 1883-. Author translation after PE unless indicated otherwise.


Cover: Used with permission of Carol Selby Price.

Ecuadorian youth: Scanned from a portion of the front page of the March 2011 Voice of Zion for purposes of review.

Human races: Downloaded under a Creative Commons license from the Flickr page of “perpetualplum,”

Chimp family: Downloaded under a Creative Commons license from the Flickr page of “Shiny Things,”

Laestadianism timeline: Reprinted with permission from Foltz and Yliniemi 2005.

“Tom’s Doubts” history lesson: Reprinted with permission from “Pastor Saji” of “St. Thomas the Doubter Church, PCA,”

Mustard seed and poppy seed jars: Author photo taken 2011.

Fish symbol: Wikipedia, public domain.

Sources for Conservative Laestadian Statements

Alajoki, Elmer. Collected writings and sermons in: Jim Frantti, ed. 1995. God is Love. Plymouth, MN: AALC.

Alaranta, Juhani. Presentation given at December 2006 preacher’s meeting in Oulu, Finland. Author translation from copy posted at

By Faith. 1982. Plymouth, MN: AALC. Originally published as: Uskon Kautta. Oulu, Finland: SRK, 1980.

Greetings of Peace. Monthly newspaper of North American Conservative Laestadianism until 1973.

Havas, Väinö. Collected sermons from 1933-1940. Published in He Entrusted Us with the Word of Reconciliation. Elmer H. Alajoki and Felix E. Ruomavaara, trans. Minneapolis: Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Congregation of Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1964.

Hepokoski, Warren. 2000. Lars Levi Laestadius and the Revival in Lapland. (accessed October 2011).

———. 2002. The Laestadian Movement: Background Writings and Testimonies. (accessed October 2011).

———. 2002. The Laestadian Movement: Disputes and Divisions 1861-2000. (accessed October 2011).

Hintikka, Matti. 2012. New Year’s Eve. Päivämies. Oulu, Finland: SRK, January.

Junes, Leena. 2008. God’s Creation Work was Pondered in Vantaa. Päivämies. Oulu, Finland: SRK, October. Translated by Emerson Beishline.

Jussila, Heikki. 1948. Kutsujan Armo. Oulu, Finland: Kirjapaino-OY Kannan Kirjapainossa. English edition: The Grace of the Caller. Peter Nevala and John Waaraniemi, trans. Plymouth, MN: AALC, 1989.

Kiviranta, Jorma. 2008. Alussa Jumala loi taivaan ja maan. Siionin Lähetyslehti. Oulu, Finland: SRK. No. 1, 12-13.

Korteniemi, Pauli. Historical sermon originally published in Greetings of Peace in 1963, transcribed from audio presentation in 1971.

Kulla, Carl A., ed. 1985. The Streams of Life. Brush Prairie, WA: Streams of Life Publishers.

———, ed. 1993. The Continuing Streams of Life. Brush Prairie, WA: Streams of Life Publishers.

———, ed. 2010. The New Awakened Laestadians. Brush Prairie, WA: Streams of Life Publishers.

Laestadian Lutheran Church. 2009. Christmas in Zion.

———. About Us. (accessed Oct. 2011).

———. How We Believe. (accessed Dec. 2011).

———. Position Statement, 2006.

———. Website, (accessed 2011-2012).

———. Christ, the Ransom for Our Sins. (accessed November 2011).

———. The Bible, God’s Word–Christian Faith’s Highest Authority. (accessed November 2011).

———. Presentations given 1994-2009, available in PDF format at

Laestadius, Lars Levi. Sermons, from unless indicated otherwise.

———. The Fourth Postilla. Hancock, MI: Book Concern Printers (OALC), 1985.

Laitinen, Aatu. 1980. English edition: Memoirs of Early Christianity in Northern Lapland. Translated by Helmar Peterson. New York Mills: Apostolic Lutheran Church Federation, 1973.

Lampi, Walt. God’s Word is Unchanging and Eternal. LLC. (accessed Jan. 2012).

Lepistö, Einari. 1985. Lammasten askelissa. Oulu, Finland: SRK. English edition: In the Footsteps of the Sheep. Paul Sorvo, trans. Plymouth, MN: LLC, 2002.

Nissilä, Keijo. 2012. Usko ja elämä: Pappeudesta – yhteisestä pappeudesta erityisesti. Päivämies, No. 2. (accessed Jan. 2012). Quotes translated by Emerson Beishline.

Päivämies, Weekly newspaper of the SRK, from translations published in the Voice of Zion unless indicated otherwise.

Reinikainen, Erkki. 1969. Lisää meille uskoa. Translated as: Nevala, Paul. 1990. The Storms Will Cease. Plymouth, MN: AALC.

———. 1986. Näin on kirjoitettu (Thus it is Written), SRK, after an anonymous translation.

Saari, Heikki. 1968. The Measure Is Being Filled. Apostolic Lutheran Church.

SRK. History. (accessed October 2011).

———. 2006 Summer Services Presentation.

———. 2011. SRK:n historiatyön jatko edellyttää keskustelua. Päivämies, Oct. 13, p. 13. Quotes edited from a translation provided by an anonymous correspondent.

Taskila, Lauri. 1961. Journey of Fiery Trials. Apostolic Lutheran Church.

Siionin Kevät, Monthly children’s newspaper of the SRK, from translations published in the Voice of Zion unless indicated otherwise.

Siionin Lähetyslehti, Devotional monthly newspaper of the SRK, from translations published in the Voice of Zion unless indicated otherwise.

Uljas, Juhani. 2000. The Treasure Hidden in a Field. Translated by LLC.

Waaraniemi, Ray. 2011. The Triune God. Presentation to LLC Ministers and Board Members Meeting, July 2. (accessed Dec. 2011).

Quoted portions of sermons by Gust Wisuri (1950s), Paul Heideman (1950s), Art Forstie (1971), Peter Nordstrom (1972-1973), Peter Nevala (1981), Jim Frantti (2010), and George Koivukangas (2010) were transcribed by the author from audio recordings. The others were from transcriptions published with annual collections of the Voice of Zion unless indicated otherwise.

Other Sources

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———. 2008. God’s Problem. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

———. 2010. Jesus, Interrupted. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

———. 2011. Forged: Writing in the Name of God–Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

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Everett, Daniel L. 2008. Don’t Sleep, There Are Snakes: Life and Language in the Amazonian Jungle. New York: Pantheon Books.

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Harris, Daniel Y. and Slobodan Dan Paich. 1999. Strangers and Friends–Cultural Identity and Community. In Papers: The Vienna Peace Summit. Vienna: The Society of Founders of The International Peace University, 4th Annual Conference. Available at (accessed Dec. 2011).

Harris, Sam. 2005. The End of Faith. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.

Haught, John F. 2000. God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

———. 2010. Making Sense of Evolution: Darwin, God, and the Drama of Life. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Herriot, Peter. 2009. Religious Fundamentalism: Global, Local and Personal. London: Psychology Press.

Hemke, Kevin R. 2003. A Little Horse Sense Is Worth a Thousand Inerrant Doctrines. In Babinski 2003, 241-252.

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Hughes, Rupert. 1924. Why I Quit Going to Church. New York: Freethought Press Association. Available at (accessed Nov. 2011).

Hurtig, Johanna. 2011. Personal communication.

Hyers, Conrad. 2003. The Comic Vision. In Babinski 2003, 103-107.

Ijäs, Johannes. 2010. Hautamäki: Nimetön keskustelu on arvotonta. Kotimaa24, Oct. 31. Quotes translated by Antti Kaunisto.

———. 2011. Vanhoillislestadiolaiset pyytävät anteeksi hoitokokousten väärinkäytöksiä.
Kotimaa24, Oct. 10. Translated by Mikko Alasaarela and reprinted by permission.

———. 2012. Tutkija lestadiolaisesta naispapista: Tämä on historiaa! Kotimaa24, Jan. 5.

Ingersoll, Robert G. [1833-1899]. All cited lectures and interviews are from The Complete Lectures and Interviews of Robert G. Ingersoll. Kindle edition.

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Kinnunen, Mauri. 2012. Personal communication.

Kirk, Kenneth E. 1966. The Vision of God: The Christian Doctrine of the Summum Bonum. New York: Harper & Row. (Orig. pub. 1931.)

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Lea, Henry Charles. 1896. A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co., Vol. 1.

Lehtola, John. 2007. A Look at the Schisms in Laestadian History. Master’s Thesis, Luther Seminary.

———. 2010. Personal communication.

Leivo, Seppo. 2005. Absolution Introduced “In Jesus’ Name and Blood.” In Foltz and Yliniemi, 125-34.

Lewis, Kathleen. 2004. The Church Without a Name. Self-published.

Lienhard, Joseph T., trans. 1996. Origen: Homilies on Luke, Fragments on Luke. Vol. 94 of The Fathers of the Church: A New Translation. Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.

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———. 1529. Large Catechism and Small Catechism. Author translations from Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1917, after McCain 2005.

———. Lectures on Genesis, Vol 1. George V. Schick, trans., 1958. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.

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———. Translated as: John Lenker. 1909. Luther’s Epistle Sermons: Epiphany, Easter and Pentecost.

———. Translated as: John Lenker. 1909. Luther’s Epistle Sermons: Trinity Sunday to Advent.

———. The Bondage of The Will. Translated by Henry Cole, 1823.

———. The Sermons of Martin Luther. Baker Book House (from e-text scanned and edited by Shane Rosenthal).

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———. 2011. Personal communication.

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———. 2003. The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man: How Reliable Is the Gospel Tradition? Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

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———. 2006. The Reason-Driven Life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

———. 2010. Personal communication.

———. 2011. Personal communication.

———. 2012. Personal communication.

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